By Melissa Walker
Quantity eleven of The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture examines the industrial tradition of the South by way of pairing different types that account for the methods many southerners have made their residing. within the antebellum interval, the wealth of southern whites got here principally from agriculture that depended on the compelled exertions of enslaved blacks. After Reconstruction, the South grew to become appealing to new industries lured via the region's ongoing dedication to low-wage hard work and management-friendly fiscal guidelines. through the quantity, articles replicate the breadth and diversity of southern lifestyles, paying specific cognizance to the region's profound fiscal transformation in contemporary a long time.
The agricultural part contains 25 thematic entries that discover concerns reminiscent of local American agricultural practices, plantations, and sustainable agriculture. Thirty-eight shorter items hide key vegetation of the region--from tobacco to Christmas trees--as good as problems with historical and rising interest--from bugs and pesticides to migrant exertions. The part on and trade comprises thirteen thematic entries within which members tackle subject matters equivalent to the industrial influence of army bases, resistance to industrialization, and black enterprise. Thirty-six topical entries discover specific industries, reminiscent of textiles, bushes, autos, and banking, in addition to individuals--including Henry W. Grady and Sam M. Walton--whose rules and firms have contributed to shaping the trendy South.
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Quantity eleven of the recent Encyclopedia of Southern tradition examines the industrial tradition of the South by means of pairing different types that account for the methods many southerners have made their dwelling. within the antebellum interval, the wealth of southern whites got here principally from agriculture that depended on the compelled exertions of enslaved blacks.
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Extra resources for The new encyclopedia of Southern culture. Volume 11, Agriculture and industry
Cotton remained labor intensive, and southern landowners struggled to find an adequate labor supply after the abolition of slavery. Many African Americans wanted to farm, and some acquired land in the postwar years, but most found it impossible to accumulate the cash for their own farms. Cash-strapped plantation owners found it difficult to pay wage laborers and also proved reluctant to allow workers the level of autonomy that came with wage work. Sharecropping emerged as a negotiated solution to the competing demands of landowners and landless freedpeople.
In the 1870s, southern cotton production recovered to prewar levels and then grew, even as prices fell. Most years, cotton was not particularly profitable, but southerners stubbornly persisted in staking their futures on the fluffy fiber. Cotton remained labor intensive, and southern landowners struggled to find an adequate labor supply after the abolition of slavery. Many African Americans wanted to farm, and some acquired land in the postwar years, but most found it impossible to accumulate the cash for their own farms.
By 1700 there were 10,000 African slaves in the colony. Unlike their Virginia neighbors, early settlers of South Carolina did not immediately find an appropriate staple crop. They experimented with Mediterranean luxury crops like grapes, but Carolina winters proved too cold for large-scale grape production. Cattle provided a lucrative source of income for early Carolinians, who, by the turn of the 18th century, had also begun producing rice on a large scale. As in Virginia, Lowcountry planters faced constant labor shortages.