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By J.C. Westermann

"It is likely to be the main hard and tough a part of the tasks of the country division to carry right now the threads of our assorted family with all of the eu powers. " This mirrored image used to be made through John Quincy Adams whereas he used to be Secretary of nation 1), however it applies to the tasks of each Minister of international Mfairs. the strain of the sentence is within the centre: "at once," writes Adams; the threads come jointly in his hand even as; to be able to safeguard the approach of his overseas coverage he needs to carry all of them in a single take hold of. that he's desirous about one energy isn't any cause of neglecting the others. to place it extra strongly: the threads are twisted; whilst one is pulled it needs to wishes have an effect on the others besides. usually, past his achieve, a knot unites numerous threads in mutual dependence and so they can't be untied or dealt with individually. international coverage isn't a unmarried line of motion. It capacity the di rection of an entire procedure of connections alongside many and various trails. The procedure could have one common development yet each one con nection needs to persist with a separate direction. Such being the character of international relations and international politics, it isn't for the technological know-how of background to regard them differently.

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Additional resources for The Netherlands and the United States: Their Relations in the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century

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Trade was carried on under foreign flags. Dutch shipping business was practically choked by war and restrictions, through the vehement application of belligerent rights during these years. 1) The British opposition to this "War in disguise" ("or The frauds of the neutral flags", a pamphlet of 1805 by J. Stephen) is well-known. An account of its development, upon the foundation of the rule of 1756, in H. W. Briggs, The doctrine of continuous voyage (Johns Hopkins University Studies in historical and political science, 44, Baltimore 1926).

0) Ibid. IV p. 370 f. See the Bibliography sub Adams. 7) Ibid. V p. 235, 246 f. M. , p. 468. 0) Van Wijk p. 173. AND THE UNITED STATES BEFORE 1813 17 present his letters of recall 1). During these years Dumas took charge of current matters - and there were no other - as charge d'affaires 2). In 1783 the American mission to the Netherlands was reciprocated by the sending of Mr. P. J. van Berckel as minister plenipotentiary to the government at Philadelphia 3). He was the first Dutch diplomatic representative in America.

0) Van Winter II p. 101 f. 6) Heckscher, The continental system, p. 104, 107. 0) See for instance p. 3. EXPECTATIONS IN 1814 25 "Our national vessels were replaced by foreign, especially by American merchantmen", says a report on the condition of Holland, December 11, 1806 1 ). The Dutch vessels had been captured or were kept in port and became out-of-date. In 1804, 242, in 1805, 198 American vessels arrived in the Netherlands; in 1806, 231 arrived at the port of Amsterdam alone 2). For the period between June 1, 1803 and December 31, 1807 about 1100 vessels flying the American flag arrived in Holland, of which number, however, a great many were in reality Dutch, French or even English owned.

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