By John O'Keefe
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Extra resources for The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map
Spatial behaviour 69 Menzel (1973) has described the way in which chimpanzees move about space in similar terms. A young chimp was carried (in a cage) around a field and allowed to see an experimenter hide a piece of fruit in 18 designated locations about the field. The chimps could do nothing but watch. After all the food was hidden the chimp was returned to the start and, some minutes later, set free. Five control chimps who had not been able to observe the placements of the food were also set free at the same time.
Thus, the investigation of maze behaviour in rats suggested that spatial behaviour could not be explained through the invocation of simple S-R habits. Something like a cognitive map, providing an overall framework and specifying places in the environment, is needed. However, Tolman said very little about the properties of such maps, or about the way in which they might have developed. Do rats learn to build maps? Or, is this ability given prior to experience? 4. THE ONTOGENY OF NOTIONS CONCERNING SPACE We have seen, in work with both humans and rats, a clear need to discuss space perception in terms of a unitary framework stabilizing a three-dimensional world.
Similarly, the use of the term map implies the availability of an aggregate of interrelated information with no necessary specification of guides. We intend in this section to determine those features of maps which must be incorporated in any theory of cognitive mapping. In the final section of this chapter we translate these ideas about maps and routes into more familiar psychological terminology, providing a 63 means for evaluating behaviours based on the two. Here, we outline the properties of the locale (map) and taxon (route) systems.