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By K. Lee Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth Lerner

Includes greater than 2,000 entries starting from brief definitions to significant overviews of innovations in all components of technology.

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Bose-Einstein condensates were first produced, with the help of laser cooling and trapping, in 1995. Since that time, numerous researchers have produced them and investigated their properties. A Bose-Einstein condensate can emit “atom lasers,” beams of fast-moving atoms analogous to the beams of photons that comprise conventional lasers. Furthermore, the speed of light in a Bose-Einstein condensate can be controlled by a laser beam. Researchers have succeeded in reducing the speed of light in a Bose-Einstein condensate to 38 MPH (61 km/h) and even to zero, effectively stopping a pulse of light for approximately a thousandth of a second and then restarting it.

Their legs are powerful and equipped with long, strong claws for digging. The An immature aardvark standing in the grass. Photograph by Eric & David Hosking. The National Audubon Society Collection/Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SCIENCE 3 1 Abacus first white settlers in South Africa named these peculiar animals aardvarks, which means earth pigs in Afrikaans. Aardvarks are found throughout Africa south of the Sahara Desert. They spend the daylight hours in burrows and forage for food at night.

Alexander Tsiaras, National Audubon Society Collection/Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced with permission. Circular accelerators The development of linear accelerators is limited by some obvious physical constraints. For example, the SLAC linac is so long that engineers had to take into consideration the Earth’s curvature when they laid out the drift tube sequence. One way of avoiding the problems associated with the construction of a linac is to accelerate particles in a circle. Machines that operate on this principle are known, in general, as circular accelerators.

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