By William Frawley
This ebook covers the necessities of modality and gives either foundational rules and leading edge advances. The ebook contains what are basically tutorials on modality and modal notions, protecting definitions of modality, morphosyntactic shape, conceptual and logical semantics, historic improvement, and acquisition. There also are particular chapters on modality in Zapotec and American signal Language, which convey the variety of kinds that modal notions can take. to aid its educational functionality, the ebook closes with a complete conceptual define of the entire chapters.
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Extra resources for The Expression of Modality
In Modality in Language Acquisition, N. Dittmar and A. ), 171–184. Berlin / New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Slobin, Dan and A. Aksu 1982 Tense, aspect, and modality in the use of the Turkish evidential. In Tense-Aspect, P. ), 185–200. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Steele, Susan 1975 a Is it possible? Working Papers on Language Universals 18: 35–58. 1975 b On some factors that affect and effect word order. In Word Order and Word Order Change, C. ), 197–268. Austin: University of Texas Press. Stephany, Ursula 1986 Modality.
Other languages with irrealis morphemes can be found in North America (Chafe 1995; Mithun 1995). A recent typological study is Elliott (2000). One of the major problems in discussing irrealis issues is the fact that the term irrealis is very vague and can refer to a number of different circumstances (see Palmer 2001: 149). Furthermore, the semantic content of irrealis morphemes differs from language to language (even between languages that are closely related). This makes defining a cross-linguistic category of irrealis very hard.
Typological approaches to modality 41 The morpheme -u, which occurs on all non-subject NPs, is called the Modal Proprietive and is used to denote future and potential meanings. This morpheme must co-occur with the Potential suffix -ju which is found on the verb. Besides the modal Proprietive, there are several other modal case morphemes, not all of them used for modal categories as we understand the term here; some have tense meanings (like the modal Ablative which, used together with the Past tense morpheme, denotes anteriority).