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By Yoel Rak

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The upper jaw in A. wbustus differs from the more parabolicshaped jaw in a few A. afiicanus specimens; but those mentioned previously as having a flat nasoalveolar clivus, such as STS-17 and STS-71, resemble A. wbustus in the transverse cross section of the palate (though not in the dental arcade). The singular appearance of the palate of A. wbustus in a midsagittal cross section was noted some time ago (Robinson 1953). The palate becomes shallower as it progresses anteriorly. 6 mm, is obtained near the sill of the nasal opening.

An in- 27 10 THREE Australopithecus robustus complete yet undeformed specimen, SK-52 (Plate 12A), gives the same impression, as does another incomplete specimen, TM-1517 (from Kromdraai), which, though lacking the superior part of the face (the supraorbital region), suggests a tapering that was apparently quite extreme (Plate 13B). The degree of upward tapering of the facial mask contour can be expressed quantitatively. When the zygomatic breadth at the same coronal level as the orbits is expressed as a percentage of the biorbital distance, the mean value for the above three specimens stands at 140%, the same as in A.

The infraorbital foramen is located very low on the infraorbital region. Just below it a small depression is found—the maxillary fossula. The foramen and the fossula are separated by the subforamen divide. The zygomatic prominence is the distinct corner between the anteriorly extended lateral part of the infraorbital region and the sagittally oriented zygomatic arch. The lateral half of the inferior orbital margin is blunt and wide and extends forward considerably from the coronal plane of the orbital opening (Plate 30).

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