By T.J. Cleophas, Ton J. Cleophas, A.H. Zwinderman, Aeilko H. Zwinderman, T.F. Cleophas, Toine F. Cleophas, Eugene P. Cleophas
Imminent the subject from an explanatory instead of mathematical stance, Cleophas and Zwinderman (both affiliated with the eu Interuniversity collage of Pharmaceutical drugs Lyon, France) current a textbook designed to be used in pharmaceutical schooling. They disguise using statistical analyses in scientific trials, emphasizing such non-classical tools as equivalence trying out, sequential research, a number of linear regression analyses for confounding, interplay, and synergism.
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Extra resources for Statistics Applied to Clinical Trials
It follows that the positive correlation situation provides a lot more sensitivity to test than the negative correlation situation. II. Studies testing equivalence In an equivalence trial the conventional significance test has little relevance: failure to detect a difference does not imply equivalence, and a difference which is detected may not have any clinical relevance and, thus, may not correspond to practical equivalence. In such trials the range of equivalence is usually predefined as an interval from –D to +D distant from a difference of 0.
8. FACTORIAL DESIGNS The majority of drug trials are designed to answer a single question. However, in practice many diseases require a combination of more than one treatment modalities. , beta-blockers are effective for stable angina pectoris but betablockers plus calcium channel blockers or beta-blockers plus calcium channel blockers plus nitrates are better (Table 1). Not addressing more than one treatment modality in a trial is an unnecessary restriction on the design of the trial because the assessment of two or more modalities in on a trial pose no major mathematical problems.
Table 2 shows how the chi-square value is calculated. 001. , McNemar’s test can not be applied. For that purpose Cochran’s test or logistic regression analysis is adequate (chapter 14).