By James Miller, Jane C Miller
This well known textbook offers a transparent account of the rules of the most statistical tools utilized in smooth analytical laboratories. Such tools underpin prime quality analyses in components comparable to the security of nutrients, water and drugs, environmental tracking, and chemical production. The remedy all through emphasises the underlying statistical principles, and no exact wisdom of arithmetic is needed. there are many labored examples, together with using Microsoft Excel and Minitab, and lots of pupil routines, lots of them in accordance with examples from the analytical literature.
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Extra resources for Statistics and Chemometrics for Analytical Chemistry, Sixth Edition
1 ng ml-1 Repeat the calculations for these values. 4 The concentration of lead in the bloodstream was measured for a sample of 50 children from a large school near a busy main road. 64 ng ml-1. Calculate the 95% confidence interval for the mean lead concentration for all the children in the school. e. 1 ng ml-1)? 5 In an evaluation of a method for the determination of fluorene in seawater, a synthetic sample of seawater was spiked with 50 ng ml-1 of fluorene. 5 ng ml-1. A. , 1998, Analyst, 123: 2217) Calculate the 95% confidence limits of the mean.
More advanced calculation facilities are provided by specialised suites of statistical software. Amongst these, Minitab® is very widely used in educational establishments and research laboratories. In addition to the expected simple statistical functions it offers many more advanced calculations, including multivariate methods (see Chapter 8), exploratory data analysis (EDA) and non-parametric tests (see Chapter 6), experimental design (see Chapter 7) and many quality control methods (see Chapter 4).
The value of t also depends on the degree of confidence required. 3. 2 in Appendix 2. 1. The following example illustrates the use of Eq. 1). 1 The sodium ion level in a urine specimen was measured using an ion-selective electrode. The following values were obtained: 102, 97, 99, 98, 101, 106 mM. What are the 95% and 99% confidence limits for the sodium ion concentration? 27 mM respectively. There are six measurements and therefore five degrees of freedom. 57 and from Eq. 8 29 Presentation of results Since no quantitative result is of any value unless it comes with an estimate of the errors involved, the presentation of the results and the errors is important.