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By Simo Knuuttila, Juha Sihvola

Clean translations of key texts, exhaustive insurance from Plato to Kant, and exact observation by means of professional students of philosophy upload as much as make this sourcebook the 1st and such a lot finished account of the historical past of the philosophy of brain. released at a time while the philosophy of brain and philosophical psychology are high-profile domain names in present examine, the amount will tell our realizing of Read more...


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Many scholars have seen similarities between the dualist trend of the second scholasticism and Descartes’s metaphysics. ) 32 5 H. Lagerlund Early Modern Materialists a. If it has been proved that in the spirit derived from the seed is the substance of the soul of other animals, one cannot doubt that it is the same in humans as well, in a more noble form, and it is surely not of a different nature and does not have very different capabilities. We see that humans are constituted by the same things as other animals, and that they have the same capabilities and even the same organs for feeding and reproduction, and that they produce a very similar seed and emit it in the same way and with the same pleasure and into a similar place and become tired after the emission of seed, and that the same things are formed out of it in both cases, namely the same nervous and membranous kind of being.

It was assumed that the body as a lower corporeal thing is not capable of affecting or changing the soul which is a higher incorporeal being. Materialists such as the Stoics and the Epicureans supposed that, thanks to their material nature, the body and the soul interact with each other through physical causality (8). Whereas Aristotle supposed that the internal nature of perception is not a central problem, as it is familiar to us through perceptions which we continuously have, the later Platonists started to analyse it in more detail.

But what now when I suppose that there is a supremely powerful and (if I may say so) malignant being, who deliberately tries to deceive me in any way he can? Can I not assert that I possess at least the minimum of all the things of which I have just spoken, as belonging to the nature of a body? I attend to them, think about them, go over them again, but nothing occurs to me; it is tiresome and pointless to repeat 3 Medieval and Early Modern Theories 33 it again. But what about the things I attributed to the soul?

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