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20) then (dl + d2 + d3 + d - +l . . d3 K1 K2 K3 . + 2) AH (dl + d2 + dg + . . 21) n Now the weighted harmonic mean vertical hydraulic conductivity is given by (dl + d2 + d3 + K Y = =c . . 23) Kn n=l The above equation is for vertical flow through a stratified column of soil. Consider, horizontal flow through a stratified soil. 24) etc. The total flow, Q, will be the sum of the flow through the individual layers or Q = Q, + Q 2 + Q 3 + . . 25) 42 = (Kldl + K2d2 + K3d3 + . . + Kndn)i The velocity flux through t h e soil will b e (Kldl + K2d2 + K3 + vH = Q/A = d l + d2 + d3 + .

Water vol. air + vol. water + vol. solids It may be expressed as a ratio above or if the ratio is multiplied by 100 then t h e total porosity is expressed as a percentage of the total soil volume. The total porosity is related to the size of the soil particles. The porosity of sands and gravels (35-45%) is less than the porosity of soils containing appreciable amounts of fines (silts and clays), (50-75%). A relationship much used in soil mechanics is the void ratio. The void ratio is the ratio of voids (volume of pores) to t h e volume of soil solids e = vol.

5. 5 Moisture distribution above and below water table. Shaded portion represents drainage water when water table drops from WT1 to WT2. 23 table is at position WT The soil moisture content is constant below t h e 1' water table. There is a region above t h e water table where t h e moisture content is almost t h e s a m e as in t h e waterlogged zone. This region is called t h e "capillary fringe". decreases with height . Above t h e capillary. fringe t h e moisture content Now suppose that t h e water table in this soil drops t o a new level, WT2.

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