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We must explain which rule of proper science has been broken, and how it has been broken. But pinpointing this explanation leads into thickets of philosophy from which no clear resolution has yet emerged. For the past half century, philosophers have tried and failed to produce a precise account of the distinc­ tion between science and pseudoscience. We cannot seem to articulate that essential line of demarcation. " Intelligent design has deep roots in the history of cosmology, and of the earth and life sciences.

There are three types of positions to be considered: first, anti-selectionism, that only opposes the sufficiency of natural selec­ tion to produce the major transitions in the history of life; second, novelty creationism, that takes some alleged transitions to be episodes in which organisms with new com­ plex forms are created; and third, Genesis creationism, that hopes to make biology and geology safe for the literal truth of the Genesis narrative. Intelligent design presses toward novelty creationism when it can, retreating to anti-selectionism when the accusations of mixing religion with science roll in.

Although it's important to recognize the possibility of backsliding, I shall begin by giving the intelligent design-ers the benefit of the doubt. " This agency bestows on descendants traits, organs, and structures that were lacking in their ancestors. Merely applying some other natural process that complements, or substitutes for, natural selection in the problematic instances won't yield a rival vision that will be friendlier to faith than the current Darwinian ortho­ doxy. What many troubled Christians would like is some indication of planning, purpose, design, at work in the history of life, a providential hand that reaches in and produces the truly important changes.

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