By William M. Goble
This e-book basically explains tips on how to do probabilistic calculations to complete SIL verification for protection platforms. beginning with an outline of the security lifecycle, the authors convey the place and the way SIL verification matches into the foremost actions from conceptual layout via commissioning. The ebook not just explains the speculation and techniques for doing the calculations, the authors additionally supply many examples from the chemical, petrochemical, strength and oil & gasoline industries. via a number of examples, the authors make the cloth comprehensible, plus the knowledge tables provide readers vital info had to do the verification calculations. The authors offer instance failure cost facts and different very important metrics wanted for probabilistic calculations. Appendices conceal chance, failure modes, diagnostic research, fault tree research, Markov types, and method architectures
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Extra info for Safety Instrumented Systems Verification: Practical Probabilistic Calculation
The summary report might say, “After installation and commissioning, twenty-six units were placed into operation. ” Some take this data and do an incorrect calculation. The operational hours are estimated by saying that 26 units run for one year – 26 × 8760 = 227,760 hours. book Page 38 Thursday, March 31, 2005 10:39 PM 38 Equipment Failure The problem with this method is that it implicitly assumes that all units fail at the very end of the time period. This is terribly optimistic and results in an incorrect low estimate of the failure rate.
One could assume that all failures occur in the first hour of the time period. 00031 failures per hour Lastly, one could assume that all the failures occurred in the middle of the time period. 000131 failures per hour The mid-range value seems reasonable, but it is low when compared with the more precise numbers obtained with the detailed data. Clearly the most conservative choice is to assume all failures occur in the first hours when confronted with censored data. The authors recommend this approach.
The lower case Greek letter mu is used to represent restore rate by convention. book Page 51 Thursday, March 31, 2005 10:39 PM Basic Reliability Engineering 51 Restore times can be difficult to estimate. This is especially true when periodic activities are involved. Imagine the situation in which a failure in the safety instrumented system is not noticed until a periodic inspection and test are done. The failure may occur right before the inspection and test, in which case the detection time might be near zero.