By Klaus F. Riegel (auth.)
This publication records my go back to an issue that has consistently been one among my closest pursuits: the systematic research of highbrow and political historical past. I turned all for historic reports whereas in highschool and persisted this paintings throughout the years that I spent as a metalworker in a shipyard and in a manufacturing facility. certainly, I succeeded in being admitted to the college of Hamburg simply after filing a comparative research of the heritage of early Greek and early Western philosophy to the past due Professor G. Ralfs. He gave me a lot encouragement and remained one in all my major educational sponsors through the years in Hamburg. lately, I translated into English the manuscript that had opened the doorways of the collage for me, and ex tended it to the background of psychology. the implications current the unfolding of an highbrow subject as though it have been an ancient discussion. They (chaps. 10 and eleven) are, possibly, debatable achievements, yet they're between my proudest. earlier than i started my reviews in psychology and philosophy, I spent al so much years in physics and arithmetic. as a result, i started to procedure psychology with a natural-science emphasis. even if i started to shift my awareness from normal experimental to developmental psychol ogy (especially gerontology), I persevered to take care of this orientation and deemphasized my historic curiosity. This curiosity didn't locate any reso nance within the developmental examine and conception of those years anyhow.
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In particular, measurements and experimentation, which imply mathematical operations, could not be performed and therefore psychology could not become a science, at least, not a nomothetic science. Psychology had to be restricted to introspection and understanding. Even though it was soon realized by Stern (1921) and Allport (1937) that from a methodological point of view Windelband's distinction is inappropriate, and that inferences and generalizations can be derived from data based on single individuals as well as from those based on groups, Windelband's distinction has remained of significance.
The Concept of Causality in Developmental Studies The reorientation that characterizes modern natural sciences brought about a change in the notion of causality. While in classical natural sciences causal relations could be inferred from the one-to-one connection between the dependent and the independent variables, this inference was blurred by intervening microcosmic states in the modern analysis. In classical mechanics, for instance, the increase of the weight on a lever will be interpreted as causing a loss of balance.
Later on he will be fully occupied by keeping up-to-date with the philosophy of his time. Finally, he will become eclectic, selecting ideas from different philosophers, or he will become a specialist, devoting his attention to one at the 40 THEORETICAL ISSUES expense of others. Idiographic inquiries into intellectual history have indeed shown that universality (not restricted to philosophy, however) seems to have been difficult to achieve after the ages of Plato and Aristotle or Kant and Hegel, respectively.