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By Claude E. Buxton

''highly advanced organisms are to be are to be conceived as having been primitive voluntary activity''

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This emergence of a new quality, says Wundt, is typical of mental phenomena, since emergent qualities are lost when we attempt a separation of mental phenomena 2. Wilhelm Wundt: Psychology as the Propaedeutic Science 33 into parts. Wundt was not entirely satisfied with this analogy, however, as he shows in the following statement: The allusion to chemical synthesis is a conspicuous example of our present subject matter. No one can foresee the attributes of water in those of oxygen and hydrogen, although no one doubts that the one is formed by the other.

Wundt (1891) argues that James's description of emotion is illogical, because emotion is first experienced or conceived and only secondarily (and not always) expressed in the autonomic system or musculature. The Leipzig emotion research program was ambitious for its time, in view of what it demanded in laboratory instrumentation, particularly the measurement of delicate autonomic system reactions. Unfortunately, by most accounts the program was unsuccessful; its findings were never well established.

He concludes: "Clearly, Titchener has himself come under the influence of the deceptions of this method" (p. 180). 2. Wilhelm Wundt: Psychology as the Propaedeutic Science 31 Wundt's (1907) critique of the introspectionism of the Würzburg psychologists led by Külpe is better known, although it is often misdescribed as opposition to the use of experiments in the study of higher mental processes. Rather, it is basically a critique of introspection as a laboratory method. Naturalistic Observation Wundt held naturalistic observation to be a necessary supplement to experimentation.

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