By A.T. Peters, H.S. Freeman
In the beginning of this sequence of volumes on colour Chemistry, the editors pointed to a few occasions that experience served as stimuli for techno logical advances within the box, therefore fighting dyestuff production from changing into what may perhaps rather be seen by means of now as a 'sunset industry'. The volumes which have supplied abundant proof for our trust that the sphere of color chemistry is particularly a lot alive, even though arguably short of additional stimulus. for example, a possible method of the layout of latest chromophores and to the layout of metal-free acid, direct, and reactive dyes having fastness homes similar to their metallized opposite numbers symbolize the type of breakthroughs that will aid make sure the persevered luck of this significant box. whereas it has to be said that serendipity 'smiled' on our self-discipline at its inception and has repeated the desire every now and then given that then, few might argue opposed to the proposition that the majority of the numerous advances within the expertise linked to any medical self-discipline end result from study designed to reinforce our figuring out of the elemental motives for experimental observations, lots of that are pursued simply because they're unforeseen, interesting and intellectually stimulating. Little mirrored image is needed for person who understands the background of the dyestuff to gain that this is often definitely real within the color chemistry area, because it used to be simple learn that ended in fiber-reactive dyes, dyes for top know-how, and smooth artificial natural pigments.
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0 • • .. • • • I • 200 -. • • ... ) of amine and nitrosating agent (nitrosyl sulphuric acid) in 92% sulphuric acid. , 2-thiazolediazonium ion: •. , by-product 2. 28 Possible by-products formed during the diazotization of 2-aminothiazole. 30. 30 are not very stable and undergo dediazoniations. 2. 1 of this chapter. 8 Evaluation of the optimum reaction and process conditions In order to realize the highest possible yield from the manufacturing of an azo dye it is necessary to optimize the selectivity of the diazotization DIAZOTIZATION OF WEAKLY BASIC AROMATIC AMINES 15% H2S04 H2 0 + + He ~ He 35 I ~ HSO~.
For a mathematical treatment of the kinetics of dissolution one must look outside the dyeing literature. A recent review of dissolution kinetics for organic compounds is given by Grant and Higuchi15 and is illustrated schematically, for instance, by NavratilY The dissolution rate for many organic compounds can be described by the Diffusion Layer theory. In the simplest version of this model, the concentration of solute at the solid surface is equal to the saturation solubility (Cs ), and this concentration decreases to that of the bulk solution (CB ) over a distance h (the thickness of the diffusion layer).