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By J. H. D. Eland

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Extra info for Photoelectron Spectroscopy. An Introduction to Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy in the Gas Phase

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Nitric oxide has a n ground state, so { the first band in the outermost occupied orbital is a n orbital and 2 the photoelectron spectrum represents a n~ ionization. The ground states of N F 2 and C 1 0 2 both have the species B ! , and the1 5 , their 1 6 spectra are therefore attributed to b j first bands 1 in ionizations . The electronic excited states of molecules that are studied in optical spectroscopy are reached by the transfer of one electron from an occupied to an unoccupied orbital. Two types of transitions are distinguished, intervalence or sub-Rydberg transitions and Rydberg transitions.

Von Niessen cover complete valence shells, and include detailed comparisons with the best available theoretical calculations. References 1. I. , /. Chem. Soc, 5141 (1963) 2. I. , /. Chem. , 37, 3007 (1962) 3. L. , Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 138, 1329 (1961) [in Russian; English translation in Sov. Phys. , 6, 490 (1961) REFERENCES 29 4. , LINDGREN, I. , Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. , Ser. IV, 20 (1967) 5. , Physica, 1, 104 (1933) 6. E. , Physica Scripta, 1, 25 (1970) 7. , SJOGREN, H. , Ark. Fysik, 40, 439 (1970) 8.

For photoelectron spectroscopy it must be monochromatized; for energies above 30 e V grazing incidence grating monochromators are used because no material is normally reflec11 tive at the corresponding wavelengths. The intensity of the analysed radiation can easily be 1 0 photons per second per Angstrom, with the result that photoelectron spectra of low or medium resolution can be obtained at any photon energy up to 200 e V without much difficulty. Special devices to enhance synchrotron radiation emission, such as wigglers, undulators and free electron lasers, promise to increase the available fluxes manyfold.

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