By Anna Siewierska
Drawing on info from over languages, Anna Siewierska compares using individual inside and throughout varied languages, and examines the criteria underlying edition. Siewierska demonstrates how individual kinds fluctuate in substance (how huge they are), within the nature of the semantic differences they communicate (e.g., gender, quantity, case), and of their use in sentences and discourse. The textbook covers the grammatical type of individual, consisting of the 1st individual (the speaker), the second one individual (the hearer), and the 3rd individual (neither the speaker nor the hearer).
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Extra resources for Person (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics)
Phˇom1 nii2 1:male this ‘∗ this I’ c. raw1 th´aŋ2 lˇaaj3 1 all several ‘we all’ d. raw1 sˆyŋ2 pen’3 khon4 ruaj5 1 who be rich persons ‘we who are rich’ Further, even more so than in Japanese, they do not constitute a closed class. The expressions regularly used to designate person include proper names, kin terms and various relational terms such as ‘master’, ‘servant’, ‘individual crown of the head’, etc. Cooke (1968) mentions twenty-seven specialized terms for the ﬁrst person and twenty-two for the second person.
Accordingly, the English possessive determiners are not considered to be strong forms. 3. Another point of controversy in regard to independent person forms is whether or not they are typologically unmarked relative to dependent forms. 2 Nonetheless, there is one correlate of typological markedness which we can address here. The existence of a typologically marked category, pattern, value or form is taken to entail the existence of the typologically unmarked category, pattern, value or form but not vice versa.
16) Japanese 1sg watasi, watakusi, ore, temae, boku, etc. 2sg anata, kimi, omae, temae, etc. Unlike in English and Polish, the pronouns do not differ morphologically from nouns, that is they form the plural by the same means as nouns (tomodachitachi ‘friend-pl’, watashi-tachi ‘I-pl’) and take the same postpositional case markers. They also display a greater range of modiﬁcation possibilities and fewer restrictions on the modiﬁers that they permit than in the case of English or Polish. They may be modiﬁed by any adjective (17a), and signiﬁcantly be preceded by a possessive pronoun (17b) or a demonstrative pronoun (17c).