By Penny Chaloner
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Note that this will not be a perfect tetrahedron like methane—chlorine is much larger than hydrogen, and much more electronegative, so a C–H bond is not identical to a C–Cl bond. Look carefully at how this is drawn—everyone develops their own style, but for a tetrahedron, two bonds should be in the plane of the page, one in front and one behind. In methanol, CH3OH, the carbon of the CH3 is like methane, and the OH is like water. 4b). 5b). 1 Each of the following molecules contains one or more sp3 hybridized atom.
However, when we reach butane, there are two possibilities. 17). These were initially called n-butane, normal butane, and iso-butane. We describe these as structural isomers—the carbon atoms are joined together in a different pattern. Notice that I am using the stick drawings; if you draw out the same structures with all the atoms there, you will quickly see why these are better! 20), n-pentane (normal pentane), iso-pentane, and neo-pentane, the new pentane. However, moving on to higher alkanes, clearly, a different system is needed—new prefixes cannot be endlessly invented.
So this is a 3-octene (it’s only necessary to give the number of one of the carbon atoms of the double bond— the other is then obvious), and when we add in the substituents, it’s 4,6-dimethyl-3-octene. Notice that the longest chain here does not run across the page. If we had started at the other end of the molecule, then the double bond would have been between C-5 and C-6, rather than C-3 and C-4. We’ll return to the issue of geometry about double bonds shortly. 6 Simple alkenes.