By Frank A. Bovey, Peter A. Mirau, H. S. Gutowsky
9 chapters disguise: basic ideas; experimental equipment; the chemical shift; coupling of nuclear spins; nuclear leisure and chemical expense strategies; two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; macromolecules; NMR of solids; distinct issues. Annotation copyright booklet information, I
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Extra resources for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
1. Many of the shims interact with each other, and multiple iterations through the different shims are always necessary to arrive at a perfectly homogeneous field. The interested reader is directed to Refs. 5 and 6 for excellent step-by-step instructions on how to shim a magnet. 1 refer to three orthogonal directions in the laboratory frame of reference. Ζ is taken as being along the magnetic field direction. At this point it is essential to recognize the difference in the direction of the main field between superconducting and electromagnets.
11(c) was obtained with fluorine-19 decoupling, and that of Fig. 11(d) with both proton and fluorine decoupling. The ability to decouple both protons and fluorine has been very useful in the analysis of carbon spectra of fluoropolymers. 5 P u l s e S e q u e n c e s Pulse sequences, described by pulse sequence diagrams, are used to manipulate the spins. In Chapter 1, Fig. 7, we have already seen a very simple pulse diagram, that for a one-pulse experiment. A pulse sequence consists of a precisely timed series of radio frequency pulses, whose frequencies, phases, and duration are used to produce the desired information.
These are superconducting correction coils of various geometries that are energized with the proper amount of current necessary to produce a flat field over the sample. Once energized and adjusted, the cryoshims require no additional changes. Further homogeneity improvements on superconducting magnets are made through the use of room temperature shims. In contrast to the field shaping methods just described, shimming refers to a method whereby small corrections are applied to the main field through the use of auxiliary coils of highly specific geometries.