Download New Patterns of Work Reform: The Case of Norway by Bjørn Gustavsen PDF

By Bjørn Gustavsen

Approximately motion learn and the creation of the dialogical strategy

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Social organization must be de­ veloped so that this influence, and hence the necessary commitments, become possible. This line of reasoning puts democratization into a position where it has instrumental value in relation to such problems as the stabilization of society. This brief presentation does not do justice to this complex but el­ egant reasoning. These arguments were never broadly diffused in Norway as part of the ID programme, and views on their validity did consequently not play any 'role of importance for the fate of the pro­ gramme .

It is, however, possible to move beyond this level of argument and pose the problem of the «Utility value» of democracy with respect to other goals. Democracy does, in other words, xrot only have to be valuable in itself, it can have value beyond this: In Emery's line of reasoning on this, an analysis of environments, or situations, is the point of departure. Using degree of organization and complexity as the chief dimension, Emery & Trist ( 1 9 6 9) disting­ uish between four ideal types of environments: the placid, random en­ vironment; the clustered environment; the disturbed-reactive environ­ ment, and environments were turbulence can occur.

A great deal of potential conflict is absorbed, resolved or suppressed before it reaches the top level of LO and NAF. But there are other factors which help to explain the high level of cooperation between the state, the employers and the unions. The late arrival of industrialization in Norway meant that democratic institu­ tions and processes were relatively developed with the result that many of the bitter industrial struggles we have witnessed elsewhere in Europe and North America have no parallel in Norway.

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