By Satyajit D. Sarker
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Extra info for Natural Products Isolation (Methods in Biotechnology)
The NMR experiments used today can be classiﬁed into two major categories: 1 a. , and so on. b. Two-dimensional techniques: 1H-1H COSY,1H-1H DQF-COSY, 1 H-1H COSY-lr,1H-1H NOESY,1H-1H ROESY,1H-1H TOCSY (or HOHAHA),1H-13C HMBC,1H-13C HMQC,1H-13C HSQC, HSQCTOCSY, and the like. In addition to the above-mentioned spectroscopic techniques, X-ray crystallographic techniques provide information on the crystal structure of the molecule, and polarimetry offers information on the optical activity of chiral compounds.
Initial and bulk Soxhlet extraction can be performed for up to 72 h. 5–5 L of solvent. For safety purposes, it is recommended the Soxhlet apparatus be in a walk-in type of fume cupboard. 8. Accelerated solvent extraction is a registered process (ASEÕ) developed by Dionex (Sunnyvale, CA, USA). Extractions are carried out under high 42 Seidel pressure (100–200 bar) within 12–20 min, using 15–45 mL of solvent, and at temperatures ranging from ambient to 200 C. Three systems are currently available.
Peter-Katalinic, J. (1994) Analysis of glycoconjugates by fast-atom-bomb ardment mass-spectrometry and related ms techniques. Mass Spectrom. Rev. 13, 77–98. 2 Initial and Bulk Extraction Ve´ronique Seidel Summary Currently, there is a growing interest in the study of natural products, especially as part of drug discovery programs. Secondary metabolites can be extracted from a variety of natural sources, including plants, microbes, marine animals, insects, and amphibia. This chapter focuses principally on laboratory-scale processes of initial and bulk extraction of natural products from plant and microbial sources.