Download Modern methods for analysing archaeological and historical by Koen H. A. Janssens PDF

By Koen H. A. Janssens

The 1st medical quantity to collect the fashionable analytical recommendations for glass research, Modern tools for Analysing Archaeological and historic Glass offers an updated description of the physico-chemical tools appropriate for deciding on the composition of glass and for speciation of particular parts. This certain source provides contributors of organization Internationale pour l'Histoire du Verre, in addition to collage students, with a few case stories the place the potent use of 1 or extra of those tools for elucidating a selected culturo-historical or historo-technical point of glass production know-how is documented.

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From Vickers indentations, a value of HV is obtained as a function of the applied pressure P and the half-diagonal a of the indentation print formed. 14) 16 Modern Methods for Analysing Archaeological and Historical Glass The indentation causes the appearance of cracks that start in the print vertices. 17) where a is the longer rhombus diagonal and b the shorter one. 3 Optical Behaviour The optical behaviour of conventional glasses is mainly governed by their refractive index, optical dispersion and absorbance.

Nevertheless, when a wet environment is retained for too long, for example, in glasses buried for many years, dealkalinisation due to entry of the water molecules causes local variations in volume near the surface. Thus, stresses causing cracks and detachments are generated that, in their turn, induce the formation of thin stratified layers. These layers are responsible for light interference phenomena that produce the well-known iridescence effect on the surface of degraded glass objects. References 1.

De la Pirotechnia is one of the first books dealing with metallurgy and it provides also precious information on glass technology and furnaces [28, 29]. Its considerations concerning the preparation of a type of crystal glass made with quartz powder and purified ash are particularly interesting. He mentions how the ashes of the Salsola Kali plant (saltwort) that grew either in Syria or in the French region near the Rhone River were used as flux. Other fluxes – such as those produced by burning ferns or lichens – are mentioned as well.

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