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By J. Capelo-Martinez

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Synthetic solids, such as resins used in metal pre-concentration procedures, and soft tissues, such as mussel tissue, are the type of matrixes from which element extraction in high percentages is easily achieved with low reagent(s) concentration(s), low sonication time and low sonication amplitude. Ultrasonic extractions in other biological tissues such as roots and needles are more metal-binding dependant; the extraction is achievable only for some metals, such as Cd, and under conditions of medium to high reagent(s) concentration(s) and high sonication intensities.

22 M H2O2. Extractions were made with an UB (50 W potency, 50 kHz sonication frequency). In the aforementioned method, a fully mechanized procedure was developed for the speciation of mercury in fish samples using CV-AFS. Sample slurries in the optimum acid mixture, in the presence of a surfactant and with traces of K2Cr2O7, were injected into a flow system, sonicated and merged with 1 mL of an oxidizing mixture of KBr/KBrO3 heated at 50  C in a water bath. The same sonicated sample slurries were also measured, in the absence of KBr/KBrO3, to obtain a second series of data that could be employed to establish the concentrations of free Hg(II).

However, this procedure is not recommended unless the skills of the operator permit it as the introduction of solids in F-AAS is linked with the risk of obstruction of the nebulizer [42]. In addition, great care must be taken to keep the burner unblocked, and so special cleaning procedures must be adopted. Furthermore, both the sample uptake tube and the drain outlet can also be blocked if the sample is too big or the slurry contains too much solid sample. Finally, it must be stressed that the introduction of samples with high organic contents in F-AAS can, in the long term, cause low sensitivity and poor precision.

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