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By James D. Benson, Michael J. Cummings, William S. Greaves

Presents a common creation to systemic linguistics within the type of essays written by way of major figures within the box. those are, with one exception, now not formerly released, and brought jointly they represent a entire insurance of the various pursuits of systemic idea.

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A course in spoken English: intonation. London: Oxford Uni­ versity Press. Halliday, M. and R. Hasan. 1976. Cohesion in English. London: Longman. S. 1959. Information points in intonation. Phonetica 4:107-120. 1962. Significant and non significant in intonation. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Helsinki. The Hague: Mouton. Kingdon, R. 1959. The groundwork of English intonation. London: Longman. R. 1980. The structure of intonational meaning: evidence from English.

We can display the Subject prominently by turning the clause into the declarative and adding a tag or response: That was given to mummy now, wasn't it? — No it wasn't. Mummy was given that now, wasn't she? — No she wasn't. The Subject in English can always be recognized in this way: it is that ele­ ment that turns up (in appropriate pronominal form) in the repeat. This not only enables us to identify the Subject; it also makes it clear what the Sub­ ject means, and why the speaker chooses that particular entity to figure as Subject of the clause.

4. Cf. for instance Brown et al. 1980, particularly chapter 3, where they describe their dif­ ficulties in recognising tone group boundaries, tonics, etc. This leads them to constantly talk about the 'vagaries of performance' in spontaneous speech, 'where the speaker is more or less painfully working out what he wants to say'. Spontaneous speech is not at all as irregular and lacking in patterns as it is often assumed to be, and language would cease to be a means of communication if the process of speaking became conscious and painful!

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