By Duncan Pritchard (auth.)
Duncan Pritchard deals scholars not just a brand new exploration of themes primary to present epistemological debate, but additionally a brand new approach of doing epistemology. This complex textbook covers such key subject matters as advantage epistemology, anti-luck epistemology, epistemological disjunctivism and attributer contextualism.
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But if there is no sheep there, then Roddy wouldn’t believe that there is a sheep in the ﬁeld and so his belief would in this case be sensitive. Given the elegant way in which the sensitivity condition deals with cases like this, one can see why one would want to advocate the sensitivity principle as a condition on knowledge in order to deal with the Gettier-style cases, and hence the Gettier problem. The lottery problem Another advantage of the sensitivity principle is that it can deal with some other epistemological problems besides the Gettier problem.
Going back to the Roddy case, we can see this possible worlds framework for sensitivity in action. e. p is true). e. the world where as little else changes other than the truth of p. Such a world would be, for example, a world where everything is the same except that there is no sheep in the ﬁeld. What does Roddy believe in this world? Well, clearly he will carry on believing that there is a sheep in the ﬁeld regardless, since he will still be looking at the sheep-shaped object. In contrast, had Roddy formed his belief by actually looking at a sheep, then this problem wouldn’t 28 Knowledge arise.
The second complexity that we need to note is that on this view luck will come in degrees depending on how close the near-by possible world is in which the target event doesn’t obtain. We can illustrate this point in terms of the following example. Suppose that a sniper takes a shot at you in a war zone and the bullet misses your head by a few inches. g. someone takes a shot at you) and you are dead just now. Suppose, however, that the sniper’s bullet missed you by more than a few inches − by a foot, say.