Download Kinds, Things, and Stuff: Mass Terms and Generics (New by Francis Jeffry Pelletier PDF

By Francis Jeffry Pelletier

A established assertion is one of those generalization that's made by means of announcing "kind" has a undeniable estate. for instance we'd pay attention that marshmallows are candy. right here, we're speaking concerning the "kind" marshmallow and assert that exact circumstances of this sort have the valuables of being candy. just about all of our good judgment wisdom concerning the daily global is installed phrases of standard statements. What could make those commonly used sentences be real even if there are exceptions? A mass time period is one who doesn't "divide its reference;" the be aware water is a mass time period; the note puppy is a count number time period. In a undeniable area, you possibly can count number and identification what percentage canines there are, however it does not make experience to do this for water--there simply is water current. The philosophical literature is rife with examples bearing on how a specific thing could be composed of a mass, equivalent to a statue being composed of clay. either typical statements and mass phrases have led philosophers, linguists, semanticists, and logicians to look for theories to house those phenomena and relationships. The members to this interdisciplinary quantity research the character and use of generics and mass phrases. famous researchers within the psychology of language use fabric from the research of human functionality and child-language studying to expand the diversity of concepts open for formal semanticists within the development in their theories, and to provide credence to a few in their previous postulations--for example, relating kinds of predications which are to be had for precise generics and for the position of item recognitions within the improvement of count number vs. mass phrases. correct facts is also defined by way of investigating the methods teenagers study those varieties of linguistic goods: childrens can sue widely used statements effectively at an early age, and kids are adept at individuating gadgets and distinguishing them from the stuff of which they're made additionally at an early age.

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Extra resources for Kinds, Things, and Stuff: Mass Terms and Generics (New Directions in Cognitive Science)

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Here are a few other examples drawn from their article: k-Properties (“Principled”) airplanes have wings trains travel on tracks cheetahs run fast doctors diagnose ailments t-Properties (“Statistical”) barns are red cars have radios dogs wear collars golfers wear plaid pants Now, it is not that properties ascribed to kinds are k-properties or t-properties once and for good. Rather, it depends upon what kind of thing they are being predicated of. For instance, redness said of barns appears to be a t-property, whereas redness said of blood would appear to be a k-property.

If the former, the generic statements are predications of this object; if the latter, then generic statements are universal quantifications over the set of these objects. Against the former version, note that both ‘Ducks have colorful feathers’ and ‘Ducks lay whitish eggs’ are true generic statements, and yet only male ducks have colorful feathers while only female ducks lay whitish eggs. Assuming that no duck, especially not a prototypical one, can be both male and female, it seems to follow that there must be more than one prototype of duck.

1991). Studies in the Semantics of Generic Noun Phrases. University of Massachusetts Amherst, doctoral dissertation. Wittgenstein, L. (1952). Philosophical Investigations. New York: Macmillan. GENERICS AND CONCEPTS 35 3 Conceptual Representation and Some Forms of Genericity SANDEEP PRASADA Despite the fact that we encounter only a very limited number of instances of any given kind, we acquire generic knowledge of the sort expressed by sentences such as (1). (1) Dogs are four-legged. How is generic knowledge of this sort acquired?

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