By N.A. Parris
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Extra resources for Instrumental Liquid Chromatography
The concept of “stagnant pools” of mobile phase being trapped within chromatographic packings is one of the most useful when attempting to explain the characteristics and developments in LC column technology. To overcome inefficiencies produced by the mobile phase mass transfer phenomenon it is necessary to minimize the pores or sites where mobile phase is able to stagnate. In the following sections, it will become apparent that this effect can be minimized by either making the internal pore structure impervious, reducing the overall diameter of the column packing material or preparing supports with very wide pores so that liquid can flow easily in and out or even through the particles.
This value means that the void time of a 500-mm-long column will be 500 sec. Therefore, the earliest peak t o elute, a non-retained peak, would take over 8 min to reach the detector. Earlier in this chapter it was mentioned that in practice the speed of analysis was often increased by raising the mobile phase velocity and sacrificing some column efficiency. 4, higher velocities could be employed without significant loss of efficiency. ) for the 10- and 5-pm-diameter supports, respectively. ) would be necessary.
This choice reduces the inlet pressure requirements for a given velocity and the overall void time, essentially in proportion to the reduction in column POROUS LAYER SUPPORTS 21 length. At the same time, of course, the overall number of theoretical plates available from the column drops similarly. However, the high efficiency per unit length (low HETP value) of columns packed with 5-pm support particles can be high enough for a short column to still provide adequate effective plates for the separation of many sample mixtures.