By M. H. B. Hayes
In response to the contributions given at a number one foreign convention, this quantity concentrates on advancements within the environmentally-friendly disposal of sludges and at the reawakened curiosity in composting which has emerged because of major eu directives.
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Extra info for Humic substances, peats and sludges: Health and environmental aspects
Comprehensive approach to preparative isolation and fractionation of dissolved organic carbon from natural waters and wastewaters. Environ. Sci. Technol. 15:578-587. Leenheer, J. A. 1985. Fractionation techniques for aquatic humic substances, p. 409-429. R. Aiken, P. L. S. Swift (eds), Humic Substances in Soil, Sediment, and Water. Wiley, New York. L. M. Reddy. 1995. Strong-acid, carboxyl-group structures in fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia. 1. Minor structures. Environmental Sci. and Technol.
Whether or not this coil would be tightly or loosely 'wound' would depend on the extent of solvent penetration, the charge densities, the nature of the cross linking, and the nature of the counter ions. The evidence suggested that the extents of cross linking are small. Hayes and Swift (1978) extrapolated the concept of the random coil solution conformation to the solid/gel state that is characteristic of the soil. When H , or divalent and polyvalent cations are the exchangeable species introduced to the system, the molecules shrink because of cation bridging and hydrogen bonding effects, the solvent in the macromolecular matrix is decreased, and solidification occurs.
1967) considered that humic structures are built around a polynuclear aromatic 'core' to which polysaccharides, simple phenols, proteins or peptides, and metals are attached (see Hayes and Swift, 1978). However, as pointed out by Hansen and Schnitzer (1969a, 1969b), the drastic reaction conditions associated with zinc dust distillation can result in excess bond breaking, and dehydrogenation and recombinations of the fragments can give rise to condensed ring structures. Cheshire et al. (1968) have shown that PAHs are generated from the zinc dust distillation of furfural (formed from the dehydration of pentose sugars), from quinone polymers, and even from dihydroxybenzoic acid.