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By Allen W. Gottfried

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Sample text

The two family-structure variables examined in the study, crowding and birth order, showed substantial relationships with HOME scores. The amount of crowding showed the strongest, most consistent relation to HOME scores of all variables studied. It was especially strong at the 12-month assessment period. It was related, to all six HOME subscales. Most notable is the finding that the amount of crowding remained significantly related to HOME scores even when all other environmental variables were controlled via partial correlation.

Measures of the environment include family status (education and occupation), family structure (degree of crowding), and environmental process variables. A canonical analysis similar to that used by Walberg and Marjoribanks (1973) to investigate home environment and differential mental abilities was employed in the study. A total of 9 4 children and their families participated in the study (53 males, 41 females). Thirty-eight were white, 56 black. Fathers were absent in 3 0 families. All participating children were given the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 6 months, 12 months, and 2 4 months and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test at age 3 years.

8 3 ) Maternal occupation: Mostly housewives. Some teachers, clerical workers, technicians, etc. 36) Mean child characteristics 12-Month Bayley MDI: 1 0 3 . 3 SD = 1 6 . 6 36-Month Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test score: 1 1 4 . 3 SD = 1 4 . 9 BLACKS Mean family characteristics Two-Factor Index of Social Position: 2 2 . 6 Paternal education: 1 1 . 3 years (Educational Scale Score = 3 . 6 4 ) Paternal occupation: Wide range but m a n y unemployed or in menial positions. Averaged is semiskilled to skilled manual workers.

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