By Jürgen Weissenborn, Wolfgang Klein
Deixis – the rooting of utterances within the speech state of affairs – is among the so much salient universals of common language. The ways that diverse languages hyperlink utterances to pragmatic components corresponding to speech time, speech position, and speech individuals convey a wealthy edition. This makes deixis a selected fruitful area for the research of universals, language comparability, and the connection among language and fact. This quantity provides and discusses deictic structures of either Indo-European and non-Indo-European languages, together with Russian, Czech, Spanish, German (standard and dialect), Hungarian, chinese language, jap, Hausa, Swahili, Hopi, Eipo, Tolai, Diyari. concentration is on spatial deixis, yet different deictic and demonstrative expressions are taken care of besides.
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Extra resources for Here and There: Cross-linguistic Studies on Deixis and Demonstration
19. 185-198. Hill, C. (1978): Linguistic Representation of Spatial and Temporal Orienta tion. Proceedings of the Berkeley Linguistics Society 4: 524-538. Hill, C. (1981): Cognition, Language, and Myth in Hausa Culture. Semiotica (to be published). Isma'il, T. (1979): Cross-Cultural Variation in Spatial and Temporal Con structs: An Error Analysis of Hausa Speaker's Use of Spatial and Tempo ral Constructs in English. Doctoral dissertation. Teachers College, Co lumbia University. A. N. (1976): Language and Perception.
Or consider a hypothetical example. If we were to meet an exotic species whose members characteristically moved in such a direction that their salient sense organs werein the 'trailing' side, we would be likely to say, They walk backwards rather than Their faces are on the back of their heads. 4) In terms of purely formal criteria, the front/back axis appears to be as radically differentiated in the human body as the up/down. In terms of functional criteria, however, the up/down is much more differentiated, largely because of the effects of gravity on the body.
A. N. (1976): Language and Perception. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Tanz, . (1980): Studies in the Acquisition of Deictic Terms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. A. E. (1948): Studies in Space Orientation. IV. Fur ther Experiments on Perception of the Upright with Displaced Visual Fields. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38. 762-782. it belongs to the first words children learn to use when they acquire German as their mother tongue (Leopold 1939-1949). ) of da. Since da is so frequent and semantically variable, it certainly would be interesting to in vestigate how speakers actually use da in various contexts and how listeners manage to take up the intended meanings.