By Irving B. Weiner
First of its sort, absolute to set the traditional for destiny psychology reference works.Provides psychologists, practitioners, researchers, and scholars with whole and up to date details at the box of psychology.Twelve volumes disguise all the basic parts of data within the box.
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Additional resources for Handbook of Psychology, 12 Volume Set
Drawing on Sechenov’s early experiments with inhibition of spinal The Psychological Laboratory and the Psychological Experiment reﬂexes, the work in Pavlov’s laboratory focused on the establishment (conditioning) and removal (extinction) of reﬂexes to a variety of stimuli and their control by excitatory and inhibitory activity in the brain. Other investigators who explored questions of adaptation of organisms to environments paid more attention to the acquisition of new behavior than to the removal of established behaviors (Boakes, 1984).
Watson attempted to demonstrate how research on conditioned reﬂexes could reveal the origins of complex behavior patterns. ” By striking a steel bar with a hammer, Watson and Rayner were able to elicit crying in the infant; when they subsequently paired presentation of a white rat, to which Albert had shown no fear, with the striking of the bar, Albert showed fear to the rat. They reported successfully conditioning fear of the rat in Albert, and, further, the fear generalized to a rabbit, a dog, a fur coat, and a Santa Claus mask (J.
In contrast to E. R. Guthrie’s molecular approaches to learning, Edward Chace Tolman (1886–1959) offered a molar theory of the psychology of learning. For E. R. Guthrie and for J. B. Watson, descriptions of learned behavior were conﬁned to descriptions of stimulus events and responses. Tolman, in contrast, proposed a theory that interpreted behavior in terms of “motive, purpose and determining tendency” (Tolman, 1922, p. 53). For Tolman, cognitive events intervened between the antecedent stimuli and their behavioral consequences.