Download Handbook of energy audits by Younger, William J.; Niehus, Terry; Thumann, Albert PDF

By Younger, William J.; Niehus, Terry; Thumann, Albert

Now in its 5th version, this instruction manual is the main entire and functional reference on hand on strength auditing in constructions and undefined. thoroughly up-to-date, the publication will give you all of the info you want to identify an strength audit software on your facility. Accounting techniques, electric, mechanical, construction and method structures research, lifestyles cycle costing, and upkeep administration are all lined intimately

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One kilowatt is equivalent to 1000 watts, and is the amount of power required to light ten 100 watt light bulbs. Some utilities do not charge small commercial users, with demand less than 30 to 50 kW, for example, for demand. In order to determine the peak demand during the billing period, the utility establishes short periods of time called the demand interval, typically 15 to 30 minutes. The demand meter continuously records the rate of power draw and averages it over the specified interval period.

Compare the functions of the audited facility to each of these categories in order to determine which profile the facility will most closely resemble. These tables will serve as a general guideline to help identify major energy consuming systems. Keep in mind that energy use in individual buildings and similar building types in different climates will vary. IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL MEASURES Once the end use profiles have been estimated, the auditor will use this information to develop an initial list of potential energy conservation measures (ECMs) and prioritize on-site audit activities.

Once the volume is measured by the gas meter, a Btu factor is applied to determine the heat content, in therms, for the natural gas consumed. The Btu factor will vary by month as heat content of natural gas varies due to changes in atmospheric conditions. Customer Charge In addition to the unit cost per therm or Ccf, many gas companies also charge a monthly customer charge or service charge. This monthly charge pays for fixed utility costs and are included with every billing. These fixed costs are independent of energy consumption and help cover a portion of the ongoing costs of service, such as operation and maintenance of the distribution systems, and administrative costs for metering, billing and collections.

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