By Dianne Jonas, John Whitman, Andrew Garrett
This booklet advances examine on grammatical swap and indicates the breadth and liveliness of the sector. major overseas students file and think of the newest learn into the character and results of all elements of syntactic swap together with grammaticalization, edition, complementation, syntactic flow, determiner-phrase syntax, pronominal platforms, case platforms, negation, and alignment. The authors installation numerous generative frameworks, together with minimalist and optimality theoretic, and convey those to undergo on a variety of languages: one of the latter are typologically special examples from Germanic, Romance, Slavic, Greek, Korean and jap, Austronesian, Celtic, and Nahuatl. They draw on sociolinguistic facts the place acceptable. Taken as a complete, the quantity presents a stimulating evaluation of key present concerns within the research of the origins, nature, and end result of syntactic swap.
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Additional info for Grammatical Change: Origins, Nature, Outcomes
The Abessive case is also found in Australia, “where it is matched by a ‘having’ case called the concomitant or proprietive” (Blake : ). a), holds up quite well. b) it is true almost by default in this domain, because the ‘with’ and ‘without’ case affixes in these languages tend to be morphologically unrelated. c), which seems to be borne out when it can be checked, though caution is in order because information about the uses of the cases is often scanty. For example, in languages where Abessive case means ‘without’ in the sense ‘unaccompanied by’, ‘not having’, and ‘not using’, there is a case or cases for the corresponding positive meanings of accompaniment, possessum, and instrument.
Under the reverse ranking, the output would be just good. 28 Grammaticalization and Directionality of Change This rudimentary morphological theory suffices to show how analogy arises as a projection of the grammar under a reduced input. Change happens when the data that contradict the old output (best in our example) are not taken into account by learners. Crucially, on this view structural ambiguity by itself is not a sufficient cause of analogical change. The innovation must not merely be consistent with the data under consideration by the learner, it must the best projection from that data.
Tëg Car. -tek Car. -À@γ Kangasmaa-Minn : – Rédei : , Riese : Wichmann : , Riese : Honti : Car. -kåål(ïn) Helimski b: – Com. -na Car. /Com. -se, — Künnap : Instr. -@l (nouns), — Keresztes : Com. ) — – Instr. -(v)al, — Szathmári : Soc. -stul Comitative -ge and Caritive -de may be adverbial (Alhoniemi : , ). According to Helimski, the Caritive -kaj, -kaCl j li is on the borderline between a case and an adverbial.