By Marja-Liisa Helasvuo, Lyle Campbell
The papers of this quantity examine how grammar codes the subjective standpoint of human language clients, that's, how grammar displays human conceptualization. a number of the articles take care of spatial kin and destinations. They speak about how easy attributes of human conceptualization are encoded within the grammatical expression of spatial kin. different articles obstacle embodiment in language, exhibiting how conceptualization is mediated via one’s embodied adventure of the area and ourselves. eventually, the various articles talk about coding of individual targeting the subjectivity of conceptualization and the way it truly is mirrored in grammar.
The articles exhibit that conceptualization displays the speaker’s construal of the location, and additionally, that it truly is intersubjective since it displays the speaker’s figuring out of the kin among the speech act members. The papers take care of Finnish, using the wealthy assets of Finnish grammar to give a contribution to matters in modern linguistics and particularly to Cognitive Grammar.
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Additional info for Grammar from the Human Perspective: Case, Space and Person in Finnish
This change (of the focus from one pole of the axis to the other) is minimally realised by the use of two grams. Example (2) shows that the conceptual change can be coded linguistically by syntactically positive and negative constructions that both describe the same overall spatial relation. Both poles of the spatial axis are explicitly mentioned when the location at one pole is declared and the location at the other is negated (in 2, by päältä ‘from the top’ and alta ‘from underneath’); negating a relation X (‘up’) evokes the corresponding antonymous relation Y (‘down’).
Having access both to linguistic representations of spatial relations and to direct observations of physical space itself offers the possibility of drawing conclusions about the nature of human conceptualization. ”Spatial semantics is thus an integral part of Langacker’s Cognitive Grammar (1987, 1991a, 1999a) as well as Talmy’s Cognitive Semantics (2000a, b). g. g. Brown 1994, Levinson 1994, Emmorey 1996, Huumo 1996a, b, 1999, Bickel 1997), and 1 As defined by Talmy (2000a, b), the Figure is the topical entity, the location of which is of interest to the speaker and which is designated by a locative expression, and the Ground is the backgrounded entity used as a reference point for the Figure.
2. Figure, Ground, and Gram In conceptualising space, we select a Figure and a Ground, thus creating a spatial relation. The relation between the Figure and Ground is expressed by a grammatical element. Figure and Ground are characterised by Talmy (2000a:312) as follows: The general conceptualization of Figure and Ground in language The Figure is a moving or conceptually movable entity whose path, site, or orientation is conceived as a variable, the particular value of which is the relevant issue.