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Stainless steels with higher carbon contents are more susceptible to cracking and some, such as Type 440, have carbon contents so high that they are often considered unweldable. 10% will often need preheating. Preheating is frequently required and usually done in the range of 400-600º F (205315° C) to avoid cracking. 20%, a postweld heat treatment, such as annealing, is often required to improve the toughness of the weld produced. Ferritic stainless steels are designated by the AlSl as the 400 series and are also more difficult to weld than austenitic stainless steels because they produce welds having lower toughness than the base metal.
The percent reduction of this cross sectional area is called the reduction of area. Impact tests are used to measure the toughness of a metal. The toughness of a metal is the ability to absorb mechanical energy by deforming before breaking. The Charpy v-notch test is the most commonly used method of determining impact toughness. Illustration 7-3 shows some typical Charpy v-notch bars. These bars are usually 10 mm square and have v-shaped notches ground or machined in them. The bars are then put into a machine where they are struck by a hammer attached to a pendulum.
Illustration 7-9 shows the relative ease of welding of the copper and copper alloys. Copper and copper alloys welded by this process are usually done with direct current electrode negative because of the high current capacity. Exceptions to this include welding beryllium coppers and aluminum bronzes where alternating current is often used to prevent the build-up of oxides. Care must be taken when welding beryllium coppers because the fumes given off are dangerous to the health of the welder. For this reason, a gas mask should be worn by the welder.