By Mohammed S. Ameen
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Additional info for Fractography: fracture topography as a tool in fracture mechanics and stress analysis
2B), or in an opposite sense at two points (Fig. 2C), or the deviation sense can change at four points (Fig. 2D). 2. The latter corresponds to the horizontal stresses S H r Sh in a core. Basic types of symmetry (Fig. 2A-D) of the 3D shape of joints (first-order characteristics) and of fractographic structures on joint surfaces (second-order characteristics) occur as the response to development conditions. Besides the shape of joints, the arrangement of twist hackles, including changes of their overlap, indicate the symmetry of fractographic surface features.
In some cases slickenlines (a few centimetres) were observed in the area of origin of the brittle tensile fracture (Fig. 12). These suggest two stages of fracturing, separated by a brief hesitation of fracture growth. Probably, during propagation of an initial small fracture, sliding occurred on the initial fracture area which had developed before the fracture hesitation. Alternatively, the disk fracture may have propagated across the core, followed by a slight change in the stress field, which permitted slippage and slickenline development on the smooth section of the fracture.
JESSELL E T AL. P (a) (b) Fig. 8. Contours of log power spectral density, based on spatially averaged versions of the 2D fast Fourier transform images shown in Fig. 7. These contours clearly show the change from anisotropic roughness at lower frequencies to isotropic roughness at higher frequencies. This is apparent both within the larger-scale image and in comparison with the smaller-scale image, and can be correlated with the local orientation of radially dispersed ridges in the quarry face. Contours are drawn at levels of 94, 91, 84 and 52% of peak power (at the central pixel).