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By Karlheinz Drauz, Herbert Waldmann

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For enzyme assays, a defined (for example 30 "C) and constant temperature has to be maintained. Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms may be almost inactive at ambient temperatures and operate in the temperature interval between 80 and 120 "C. -2. - a: LO- (u 20 2o 1 - I 20 I 30 I LC! I * 50 Temperature ("C) Figure 1-14. Temperature dependence o f the reaction rate A: L-2-hydroxysisocaproate dehydrogenase (L. confusus) 6: D-lactate dehydrogenase (L. confusus).

4 Enzyme Nomenclature Table 1-5. ). Cobalamine Adenosyl-cobalaminecatalyzes hydrogen shifts as a special isomerisation reaction. With exception of reduction of ribonudeotides the H-shift occurs intramolecularly. Methyl-cobalamine and tetrahydrofolic acid are the coenzymes in methylating homocysteine to methionine. 4 Enzyme Nomenclature The IUB has classified enzymes into 6 main classes according to the type of reaction catalyzed: I 21 22 I 1 Introduction 1. Oxidoreductases 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. These catalyze oxidation/reduction reactions, transferring hydrogen, oxygen, and/or electrons, between molecules.

2 Enzyme Structure and Function All enzymes are proteins, with the exception of the recently discovered ribozymes. Ribozymes are special ribonucleic acids performing catalytic functions in the processing of RNA which will not be considered here. Proteins are polar macromolecules with molecular mass in the range 104-106. 2 Enzyme Structure and Function 15 Table 1-3. Amino acids for protein biosynthesis. 5 0 NH, 6 I I Introduction Table 1-3. ). 3 a The p& values depend on temperature, ionic strength and, especially on the microenvirronment of the ionizable group condensed according to information coded in the corresponding genes.

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