By Louis Kontos, David C. Brotherton
In 1927 the 1st booklet on gang existence, Frederic Thrasher’s the group: A examine of 1,313 Gangs in Chicago, was once released. in basic terms within the final twenty years, as gangs have unfold from the interior towns to the suburbs and past, has the examine of gangs turn into greater than only a specialization in sociology and criminology. For this new encyclopedia, editors and nearly 60 different participants have written eighty two signed entries exploring gangs and public rules and courses designed to deal in a good demeanour with the matter of gangs. The alphabetical entries variety from one-half web page (Non-racist skinheads) to twelve pages (Mexican gangs). phrases in daring kind point out a separate access within the encyclopedia. a listing of references and recommended readings on the finish of every access leads the reader to extra in-depth works. The preface and creation set the level for the exact evaluate of gangs that follows. An index completes the quantity. The creation highlights 4 parts which are lined within the encyclopedia: gang concept, gang practices, gang varieties, and gang enlargement. Examples of entries on gang thought are Differential organization conception and Subcultural theories of gangs. Gang practices comprise such themes as Gang garments, Gang graffiti, and Gang symbols. Gang varieties contain Gangs in U.S. colleges and Gangs in prisons; ethnic gangs (e.g., The Black Hand and Jewish gangs and gangsters); and gender gangs (e.g., The Latin Queens). Gang enlargement is roofed in such entries as Australian early life gangs and Transnational gangs. an inventory of entries and a advisor to comparable themes precede the alphabetical entries. this primary encyclopedia with regards to gangs certainly supplies what the editors meant: an orientation to the topic, a stimulation of interest, and assistance for additional research of the topic through the reader. urged for educational and big public libraries. — Kaye Talley
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Mack, a member of a Blood set in Los Angeles was sent to prison in Rikers Island where he established the United Blood Nation. Like their counterparts in Los Angeles, the Bloods in New York emerged as a form of protection against Latino gangs such as the Almighty Latin King and Queen Nation and the Asociación Ñeta. Cultural dissemination has also helped the establishment of Blood gangs in suburban areas and in countries such as New Zealand and England. With the help of mainstream media and new technologies, youth around the world have been introduced to Bloods culture through videos such as Colors and Menace II Society.
In the 1960s, such gangs developed a reputation as a source of resistance to Anglo American authority and oppression. “Many community leaders saw the Chicano movement as an extension of their life-long struggle for the advancement of Mexicans and sympathized with the pintos (prison gang members) as a segment of the community needing reintegration into barrio life—not rejection or further stigmatization” (Moore, 1985, p. 8). Community acceptance of Chicano gangs began to disappear the 1980s, as their reputation changed yet again.
Their clothes of choice include Calvin Klein, highlighting the CK to represent Crip Killer. Bloods “ﬂare up” or “ﬂame up” by wearing all red clothing. Whenever they wear blue they wear it in their pants to “diss” Crips. Bloods avoid speaking the word “cousin” because it represents Crips, and instead use “relative” to refer to blood cousins. They also avoid using the letter C and when necessary they reverse it, cross it out, replace it with a B, or add a K to show disrespect to the Crips. The Bloods also have a particular way of walking and dancing called Blood-walk.