By H. Schultz (Auth.)
Translated from the German, it is a sensible ebook for engineers and is the reason the pains, improvement and production methods considering electron beam welding
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Extra resources for Electron Beam Welding
For thicker welds there remains only the possibility of changing to a verticaldown (a 9 o'clock position in the case of circumferential welds) or transverse position. Figure 71 shows how in a horizontal-vertical position the depth of the weld pool can be reduced and a stable keyhole achieved. Detailed investigations have confirmed these considerations so that today in manufacturing industry, nu- 56 Electron beam welding Welding position w q Fig. 71 Dimensions of the weld pool at different positions (61).
Fig. 38 Longitudinal section through the root of a partial penetration weld showing the spiking effect and , entrapment of voids. 6 X). In the past a considerable effort has been made to intervene in these dynamic effects using various techniques, with the aim of stabilising the process and preventing the occurrence of defects in the weld. One of the most interesting suggestions made use of a second electron beam [38J. With this additional electron beam inclined at an angle to the vertical, the base of the keyhole can be enlarged against the direction of the welding and the spiking effect prevented.
X-rays have biological effects and in the quantity and energy emitted during electron beam welding are hazardous to the human body. In spite of this, provided that the correct safety procedures for electron beam welding are followed, there should be no danger to the health of the operating personnel. Since welding is normally carried out in a vacuum the wall of the vacuum chamber itself (U B :s;; 60 kV), or the chamber wall together with additional protective lead shielding (Un> 60 kV), will provide adequate and safe protection against X-rays.