By Lesley Jeffries
This article presents scholars with the elemental descriptive wisdom they're required to grasp ahead of relocating directly to extra complicated examine. The booklet is prepared lower than thematic headings, that are completely cross-referenced, allowing scholars and lecturers to take advantage of the e-book as required--either as a path textual content or to aid with person points of language. every one part comprises an creation, labored examples, "in context" sections touching on the subject to genuine textual content examples, feedback for extra examining and research and a precis.
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Extra resources for Discovering Language: The Structure of Modern English (Perspectives on the English Language)
Try alternating a very long voiceless /ssssssssss/ with a long voiced /zzzzzzzzzzz/. If you touch the side of your throat lightly whilst alternating these otherwise identical sounds you will be able to feel the voicing switching on and off. It is harder to produce this feeling with plosives because they are so short, and the nasals, though they have the potential to be long, do not have voiceless counterparts in English. The fricatives are therefore ideal, and you may wish to try the same effect with /ffffffff/ and /vvvvvvvv/, where the ‘switching’ is much more marked and less smooth than with /s/ and /z/.
Further back, some sounds are produced halfway between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate. These are known as post-alveolar sounds and involve the body of the tongue being raised towards the front of the palate. They include the English sounds /ʃ/ and / / , which are spelt ‘sh’ and ‘s’ respectively and occur, for example, in shame and leisure. Further back still, there are the palatal sounds, where the body of the tongue rises towards the PHONETICS most domed section of the palate. English only has one palatal sound, the ‘y’ sound, which is represented as /j/ phonologically and is found in yes.
If you compare it with the position of your tongue when getting ready to say a word such as light you may feel that there are two kinds of /l/ in your accent. 6 shows the full version of the current IPA consonant chart. There are no diacritics, though the official IPA chart has a list of diacritics appended to it. Note that the place and manner distinctions take priority, being on the horizontal and vertical axis respectively. The third distinction, voice, is represented as a split within the boxes on the grid.