By Stephan Haggard
This is the 1st publication to check the targeted welfare states of Latin the USA, East Asia, and jap Europe. Stephan Haggard and Robert Kaufman hint the old origins of social coverage in those areas to an important political alterations within the mid-twentieth century, and exhibit how the legacies of those early offerings are influencing welfare reform following democratization and globalization.
After global conflict II, communist regimes in japanese Europe followed wide-ranging socialist entitlements whereas conservative dictatorships in East Asia sharply restricted social safety yet invested in schooling. In Latin the US, the place welfare platforms have been instituted prior, unequal social-security platforms favorite formal area staff and the center class.
Haggard and Kaufman evaluate the several welfare paths of the nations in those areas following democratization and the circulate towards extra open economies. even if those differences generated strain to reform present welfare structures, financial functionality and welfare legacies exerted a extra profound impression. The authors exhibit how exclusionary welfare structures and fiscal trouble in Latin the US created incentives to undertake liberal social-policy reforms, whereas social entitlements from the communist period constrained the scope of liberal reforms within the new democracies of japanese Europe. In East Asia, excessive progress and permissive economic stipulations supplied possibilities to develop social entitlements within the new democracies.
This e-book highlights the significance of putting the modern results of democratization and globalization right into a broader old context.
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Additional resources for Development, Democracy, and Welfare States: Latin America, East Asia, and Eastern Europe
Nonetheless, outward-oriented strategies strongly inﬂuenced the incentives facing governments, ﬁrms, and workers with respect to social policy. On the one hand, strategies dependent on the export of labor-intensive manufactures put a premium on labor-market ﬂexibility and made gov- 10 • Introduction ernments and ﬁrms highly resistant to social insurance schemes that would increase labor costs. The authoritarian regimes in the region, whether established early in the postwar period or after brief periods of semidemocratic rule, thus maintained far more limited systems of public protection than was the case in either Eastern Europe or Latin America.
In part 2, we show that responses to these cross-pressures varied substantially within and across geographic regions. Most countries instituted social-policy reforms, but the scope and direction of those changes depended on variations in economic performance and on the organizational and political legacy of past welfare entitlements. Reversal of Fortune The ﬁrst three postwar decades can be considered a “golden era” of rapid growth. By contrast, economic performance since 1980 has shown much wider variance across regions and countries and much greater volatility within them.
To what extent did democracy and democratization affect the responsiveness of governments to the interests of low-income groups? Regime type is an important component of any explanation of social policy. Dictatorship and democracy determine the extent to which competing parties can enter the electoral arena and the freedom interest groups enjoy in organizing and exercising inﬂuence. However, we also emphasize the limitations of a purely institutional approach. Institutional rules of the game—the supply side of the political market—are not sufﬁcient to account for the character of social policy without consideration of underlying interests and their organization—the demand side of the political market—and the economic context in which governments operate.