By Geoffrey D. Rubin MD, Neil M. Rofsky MD
Written through world-renowned specialists in either CT angiography and MR angiography, this landmark paintings is the 1st finished textual content on vascular imaging utilizing CT and MR. It presents a balanced view of the services of those modalities and sensible directions for acquiring and examining photographs. greater than 2,200 illustrations supplement the text.
Chapters co-authored via CT and MR specialists hide imaging of all coronary and non-coronary arteries and veins. each one bankruptcy info symptoms, imaging options, basic and variation anatomy, ailments, surgical administration, and pitfalls. The authors evaluate the software of CT and MR in particular scientific occasions and talk about the position of traditional angiography and ultrasound the place appropriate.
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Extra resources for CT and MR Angiography: Comprehensive Vascular Assessment
19 In general, data from a 360-degree rotation are sampled to reconstruct an image. However, data from multiple rotations can be combined in order to increase dose, for example, for brain scans. In order to increase temporal resolution, so-called partial scans can be performed, in which the minimum amount of projections are used for reconstructing an image: For each pixel in the final image, a 360degree circle of evenly spaced projectional rays are required. Since direction of the rays plays no role, projectional data from 180 degrees have to be available.
This requires low pitch factors or increasing the reconstructed section width by at least 30% over the chosen collimation (Fig. 1-19). For this reason, z-FFS yields the biggest advantages whenever very thin sections have to be reconstructed or high pitch factors have to be used. Finally, it has to be noted that the number of focal spots plays no role for the calculation of pitch factors or other crucial scanner characteristics. A scanner with 32 active detector rows and 2 focal spots will therefore behave like a 32-detector-row scanner and not like a 64-detector- row scanner when it comes to pitch, scanning speed, or even detector width.
Note that the width at 50% of the height of the PSF (full width at half maximum) is a good indicator of spatial resolution. (From M. Prokop et al. Spiral and Multislice CT of the Body. ) • The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function (PSF): The PSF describes how much every detail in an object gets blurred once it is displayed in an image (Fig. 1-9). Hence, the PSF is measured experimentally by imaging a very tiny detail that is substantially below the spatial resolution of the imaging system but that has a very high contrast.