By Andrew Carnie
This e-book explores the empirical and theoretical facets of constituent constitution in ordinary language syntax. It surveys a wide selection of functionalist and formalist theoretical ways, from dependency grammars and Relational Grammar to Lexical useful Grammar, Head-driven word constitution Grammar, and Minimalism. It describes the conventional checks for constituency and the formal capacity for representing them in word constitution grammars, prolonged word constitution grammars, X-bar conception, and set theoretic naked word constitution. In doing so it offers a transparent, thorough, and rigorous axiomatic description of the structural houses of constituent bushes. Andrew Carnie considers the vital controversies on constituent constitution. Is it, for instance, a primitive idea or should still it's derived from relational or semantic shape? Do sentences have a unmarried constituency or a number of constituencies? Does constituency function on unmarried or a number of dimensions? And what precisely is the categorial content material of constituent constitution representations? He identifies issues of commonality in addition to very important theoretical alterations one of the numerous ways to constituency, and severely examines the strengths and boundaries of competing frameworks. this is often an incredible creation for graduate scholars and complex undergraduates. it's also a priceless reference for theoretical linguists of all persuasions in departments of linguistics, cognitive technological know-how, computational technological know-how, and similar fields.
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The sentence is ‘‘The clown kissed the Doberman,’’ where kissed follows clown. A related problem occurs in well-drawn trees such as (23): A B D E C F G J H K L M Does J precede F? It is not to the right of F nor to the left of it. L is similar to kissed in (22). It appears to the left of F, but most syntacticians would understand it to follow F. Precedence appears to be at least partly dependent upon the dominance relation, and cannot be deWned with dominance. To see this is true, take the tree in (23) again, but this time draw a box22 from L all the way up to the root node, surrounding only the lines and nodes that dominate L.
Nothing in particular rides on the content or names of these labels. What is important in these diagrams is the constituent structure. 24 preliminaries S (46) NP N Dory VP V kissed NP D the N P man with PP NP D A N an open mouth Under the compositionality hypothesis, hierarchical constituent structure thus also allows us to provide an explanation for syntactic ambiguity. 5 Some concluding thoughts In this chapter, I started with the hypothesis that sentences may be structured linearly from left to right by some operation of concatenation.
16 Based on Higginbotham (1982/1985). See Sampson (1975) and Blevins (1990), who argue that the single-mother requirement should be relaxed and multidomination allowed. basic properties of trees 35 Below, we will see that a diVerent axiom (the non-tangling condition, A9) rules out (11) as well as some other ill-formed trees, so we will be able to eliminate (A5); I list it here for completeness. Trees such as (11) will be a recurring question throughout this book. 3 Immediate dominance Because of transitivity (A3, above), M in (1)—repeated here—dominates all of the nodes under it.