By John K. Chance
Conquest of the Sierra depicts the colonial adventure within the Sierra Zapoteca, a distant mountain zone of Oaxaca, in southern Mexico. This densely populated sector is inhabited by means of Zapotec, Chinantec, and Mixe Indians, whose pre-Hispanic societies lacked the wealth, precious craft economies, and intergration with alternate networks present in the better-known societies of the neighboring Mixteca and the Valley of Oaxaca. Even through the colonial interval the sector remained distant. Its sole Spanish payment, Villa Alta, by no means supported greater than a handful of colonists, and haciendas and mining have been of little value. but in the course of the Spanish approach of compelled creation, the Indians of the Sierra turned certainly one of New Spain’s major manufacturers of cochineal dyestuffs and cotton textiles.
Based on unpublished and hitherto untapped archival assets, this ebook lines the evolution of a different neighborhood colonial society. The actions of Spanish political officers, retailers, and the clergy of Villa Alta are precise, however the crucial concentration is one the Indian communities-their inhabitants, payment styles, economic climate, spiritual practices, and sociopolitical association. Of designated curiosity is the emergence of overdue colonial Zapotec elites and their position within the compelled construction and trade-the repartimientos de efectos-conducted through Spanish magistrates.
The Sierra Zapoteca differed considerably from different areas of Oaxaca and vital Mexico with appreciate to the method of conquest, fiscal integration, spiritual syncretism, and social stratification. Conquest of the Sierra exhibits how a comparatively undeveloped pre-Conquest tradition, coupled with a hugely monopolistic colonial economic climate, produced a particular variation of indigenous society in colonial Mexico.
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Additional info for Conquest of the Sierra: Spaniards and Indians in Colonial Oaxaca
Certainly none of the mountain communities could be classified as urban, and it may even be appropriate to raise the question of whether the political units best approximated a state or "chiefdom" level of organization. Sierra settlements were generally smaller, much poorer, and only incipiently stratified and possessed less specialized economies than those of the Valley. A brief list of characteristics that set off the Sierra from the more developed regions of Oaxaca at the time of the Conquest includes the following: 1.
Not mentioned after 1 622. merged with Tanetze after 1622. h Added after midsixteenth century. 'No figures for Yachas or Sayultepec. j Half escheated in 1532. kAbandoned by 1674. 'Not mentioned after 1568. "Added in 1560, but not mentioned again. "No figures for Zoquio or Tultitlan. not mentioned after 1622 (not to be confused with Nexitzo San Juan Tagui). disappeared after 1622. q Half escheated before 1534. rHalf escheated before 1534. 'Disappeared after 1600. Sources: Cajonos. AJVA Civil 1708- 1825, 3; AJVA Civil 1682- 1882, 55; Gerhard, Guide, p.
Sources: Cajonos. AJVA Civil 1708- 1825, 3; AJVA Civil 1682- 1882, 55; Gerhard, Guide, p. 372; ACN Indios 10, Cuaderno 3, 54; ACI Justicia 230; ACN Reales CCdulas Duplicadas 19, 615; APVA Papeles de Analco; ENE, 9:38-40. Nexitzo. ACI Justicia 230; ACI Patronato 183, 21 9; ACI Justicia 135, l ; ACI Mexico 96, 91, 242; ACI Escribania de C6mara 15 9 ~AJVA ; Civil 1579- 1825, 3; AJVA Civil 1672- 1799, 2; AJVA Civil 1708- 1825, 39; AGN Indios 6, primera parte, 372; AGN Inquisici6n 437, 17; ACN Mercedes 3, 785 :307-8; Zavala and Castelo, 7 :35; ENE, 9: 38-40; Icaza, 1:89; PNE, 1 :278; ccc Libro de la Hermita.