By Orv C. Karan
This paintings offers with the group revolution in incapacity providers that has been occuring within the united states, which consists of a primary switch within the approach execs and corporations relate to people with disabilities and their households. It covers present thought and practices within the box of incapacity and offers an creation to the current brooding about "paradigm shift" in incapacity companies. The textual content additionally encompasses a historical past of rehabilitation companies and locations the neighborhood revolution in incapacity therapy in point of view. Practices from the entire numerous prone that deal with individuals with disabilites also are coated
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24 THE NEW PARADIGM their goals and activities, the concepts of paradigm and paradigm shift tend to take on different ranges of meanings in each of them. It should also be noted that when we refer to "the field of disabilities," it straddles the social science and social welfare service realms, including researchers, policy makers, administrators, and providers. Kuhn (1962), in assessing historical trends in the hard sciences, asserts that the prevailing paradigm in any particular field implicitly points to critical issues, guides observations and manipulations of the material world, and provides criteria for judging theories.
1972). 2 ΏΠΏ • • • • • • Shifting Paradigms to Natural Supports: A Practical Response to a Crisis in Disabilities Services David W. Leake, Ronald K. James, and Robert A. Stodden INTRODUCTION As Bradley and Knoll noted in Chapter 1, services for persons with disabilities have taken on a radically new look over the past twentyfive years as the focus has shifted from segregation to integration within c o m m u n i t y environments. T h i s revolutionary shift has been driven by a c o m m i t m e n t to normalization and associated principles and has become widely institutionalized, largely as the result of legal mandates (Castellani, 1987; Scheerenberger, 1987).
New York: Plenum. J. (1981). Helping networks and human services. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. J. (1990). Special education in context: An ethnographic study of persons with developmental disabilities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , and Cerreto, M. (1989). Normalization, deinstitutionalization, and the limits of research: Comment on Landesman and Butterfield. American Psychologist, 44, 448-449. Horgan, J. (1991). Profile: Reluctant revolutionary. Scientific American, May 1991, 40, 49.