By D. K. Fieldhouse
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Few of these, it was argued, had a eoherent preconeeived idea of what they would do with the territories they claimed or of the problems these would ereate . Colonial rule was thus a eomplex improvization and an ideology of empire was evolved to justify what it was found necessary to do . It is true that , in the course of meeting this ehallenge, many in the imperial states eame to believe that eolonialism was a rational and permanent eondition and that it benefited both imperial state and dependency.
Yet the French came no closer than the British to resolving the basic contradictions inherent in colonialism. On the one hand the burden of administering and pacifying such vast areas was disproportionate to any benefits received by France ; so that after 1945few Frenchmen seem to have regretted decolonization except for the army, which had avested interest, settIers in Algeria and Tunisia , who stood to lose everything, and those nationalists who regarded empire as a necessary symbol of French greatness.
Schumpeter, /mperialism and Social Classes, (1919, English edition Oxford 1951). 3. Franz Fanon, The Wretched 0/ the Earth, (English edition New York 1966). 4. C. Furtado, Development and Underdevelopment; (California 1964). 5. Schumpeter, op. , p. 7. 6. He summarized these in his book, La Mise en Valeur des Colonies francaises (Paris 1923). 7. K. Fieldhouse, The Colonial Empires (London 1966). 8. Lugard set out his ideas most fully in The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa, (London 1922 3rd ed.