By Derek Walcott
A suite of poems via modern poet, Derek Walcott, whose topic is the landscape of lifestyles, panorama, tradition and politics of the West Indies.
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Extra info for Collected Poems, 1948-84
24 The instances for measuring union reactions and government concessions included a common set of policies (stabilization, privatization, trade liberalization, social security, labor organization, and labor flexibility) for a national labor confederation. , privatization, industrial restructuring, and administrative decentralization). 2 summarizes all observed interactions. Arrows show the passing of time between the first and the second observation. This table shows that the cases studied provide an array of observations of different union-government interaction with no apparent national or sector-level explanations regarding the dependent variable.
These changes, in turn, should generate shifts on the patterns of union-government interactions making them more fluid, even in the short term. 1 summarizes the conditions predicted by my theory for the four uniongovernment interactions when a labor-based party implements marketoriented reforms: • Cooperation or effective restraint is more likely in the absence of union and partisan competition – when only one union organizes all workers and is affiliated with the governing party. Partisan loyalty reduces the incentives for militancy and facilitates bargaining, whereas union monopoly boosts the bargaining power of the union because government officials want the collaboration of a strong and loyal union.
Although these national-level variables help to understand national-level patterns, they cannot explain subnational variation. The marginal cells at the right of the table also show diversity in the interactions within each of the analyzed economic sectors. Hence the similarity of economic interests is not sufficient to provide an alternative explanation to national-level variation. Economic pluralism could explain sector-level patterns across nations, based on the common link with international markets of sector-specific assets or factor endowments of different countries (Rogowski 1989, Frieden 1995).