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By Merilee S. Grindle, Ellen Comisso, Peter Hall, Joel Samuel Migdal

The Eighties and Nineties posed nice demanding situations to governments in Latin the United States and Africa deeply tormented by fiscal and political crises that weakened their skill to inspire monetary improvement and supply for potent governance. utilizing case reports of Mexico and Kenya this e-book exhibits how a decade of deep and sustained difficulty additionally grew to become a decade of thoughts in principles, coverage instructions, political coalitions, and govt associations. Merilee Grindle argues that political management and constructions of political strength, whereas often a part of the matter of underdevelopment, also are a part of the answer in development extra effective, powerful and responsive governments.

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60 Much of the impetus for increased technical skills in government came from the international financial institutions. In negotiations over the provision of economic assistance and the conditions to be set for its use, the IMF, the World Bank, and other agencies made insistent demands for data on the condition of national economies, data that were often not available. A frequent sight in ministries of finance and central banks throughout the region was the current mission from the IMF or the World Bank poring over figures, complaining about the lack of data and the unreliability of the data that existed.

0 - 4 . 9 11 6 9 2 12 2 9 7 - 0 . 1 - 1 . 2 - 0 . 3 - 5 . 0 - 2 . 6 - 0 . 6 - 1 . 0 - 2 . 0 - 3 . 5 - 6 . 0 - 0 . 9 - 0 . 8 - 1 . 0 - 1 . 3 - 3 . 1 - 1 . 9 - 1 . 6 - 3 . 1 - 3 . 3 "1991 data are calculated from estimates of GDP. Source: calculated from constant local price GDP and population. World Bank, World Tables (1993). 1 - 4 . 2 - 2 . 0 - 0 . 7 - 5 . 2 - 1 . 4 - 0 . 1 - 2 . 0 - 1 . 9 - 2 . 3 Average annual inflation rates in Latin America and Africa, 1980-1991 (percent) 1980-1991 416. 8 363.

Subsequent chapters deal in greater detail with the same issues in Mexico and Kenya; this chapter indicates the extent to which these two countries shared in region-wide political and economic trends. THE SCOPE OF CRISIS Many Latin American and African countries were significantly less well off at the end of the 1980s than they had been at the beginning of the decade. 2 provide an overview of economic growth and decline in both regions between 1970 and 1990. 5 percent per year. Per capita GDP growth rates were of course more modest, but they remained generally positive.

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