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Consciousness and the Brain, pp. 1, 8. 64. W. Weimer, "Manifestations of Mind: Some Conceptual and Empirical Issues," in ibid. 65. F. Ayala distinguishes three sorts: ontological, methodological, and epistemological. Ontological reductionists assert "that the laws of physics and chemistry fully apply to all biological processes at the level of atoms and molecules. Vitalism is now practically a dead issue . . " ; methodological reductionists argue that " t h e only biological explanations worth seeking are those obtained by investigating the underlying physicochemical process" (an antireductionist would tend to exclude such explanations altogether); epistemological reductionists seek ever more comprehensive principles such that " t h e theories and experimental laws formulated in one field of science can be shown to be special cases of theories and laws formulated in some other.

What we refer to is still difficult to visualize as a " t h i n g , " which is unsatisfactory since it suggests we will have to hide behind half-meanings and fuzzy formulations as Orwell says. We put up with this, however, if only because abstract concepts are necessary and useful; if only because our actual experience of what they try to describe is more compelling than the failure to find unambiguous references for them in the real world. 35 36 Biopolitics and International Values The problem of language will always remain, as will its capacity to both mislead and inform.

Human Needs and Politics (Elmsford, N . Y . : Pergamon Press, 1977). Note also K. Boulding, Ecodynamics (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1978), p . " 80. R. Fitzgerald, "Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of N e e d s , " in Human Needs, p . 50. 8 1 . R. Young, " T h e Human Limits of N a t u r e , " in J. , The Limits of Human Nature (London: Allen Lane, 1973). 82. , p . 241. 34 Biopolitics and International Values 83. , p . 263. 84. T. Ferris, The Red Limit (London: Corgi, 1977), p. 142. 85. E. O. Wilson, On Human Nature (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1978), pp.

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