Download Basic Organic Chemistry for the Life Sciences by Hrvoj Vančik PDF

By Hrvoj Vančik

This ebook is designed for college students of biology, molecular biology, ecology, medication, agriculture, forestry and different professions the place the data of natural chemistry performs the real position. The paintings can also be of curiosity to non-professionals, in addition to to lecturers in excessive colleges. The booklet contains eleven chapters that conceal: - easy rules of constitution and structure of natural compounds, - the weather of the nomenclature, - the thoughts of the character of chemical bond, - introductions in NMR and IR spectroscopy, - the thoughts and major sessions of the natural response mechanisms, - reactions and homes of universal periods or natural compounds, - and the advent to the chemistry of the average natural items by means of simple ideas of the reactions in dwelling cells.

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The distance at which the potential energy has minimum value is associated with the length of the chemical bond. In reality, the molecule is never at this minimum because the molecule constantly vibrates and the energy of this vibration must be larger than this minimum. The difference between the minimum energy and the vibrational energy level is called zero point energy and it depends on the frequency of vibration by the formula E = ½(hν). h is Planck constant and ν is the vibrational frequency.

What is the nature of these successive steps? One example of the reaction mechanism was already discussed: the reaction of catalytic hydrogenation. The reaction mechanism theory is connected to the Lewis concept of the electronic structure of molecules. Starting with the Lewis idea that chemical bonds are described as electron pairs, Sir Robert Robinson and Sir Christopher Ingold have proposed that the reaction mechanism can be explained as the transfer of these electron pairs in such a way that the molecular structure can be rearranged from reactants into products.

In alkynes, the carbon atom has only two neighbors and the alkyne molecule is linear. A similar linear structure is also characteristic of the structure of cumulene molecules. The largest electron density in planar molecules like alkenes is not located between the two carbon atoms but rather above and below the molecular plane. Such distribution of electron density is rationalized by the molecular orbital model in which the double bond includes π-orbitals as shown in the following figure. These sterically unhindered π-electron densities are a perfect target for the attack by other particles, atoms or molecules.

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